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 Learning Bulgarian

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mechta
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PostSubject: Learning Bulgarian   Sat Sep 11, 2010 12:58 pm

First topic message reminder :

'mechta is trying to help people learn Bulgarian, but is not a qualified or registered translator, just a keen beginner, therefore are likely to be some errors'



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first the alphabet (azbuka)
Aа -->
a...'a' as in c'a't
Бб -->
b...'b' as in 'b'us
Вв -->
v...'v' as in 'v'illa
Гг -->
g...'g' as in 'g'o
Дд -->
d...'d' as in 'd'o
Ее -->
e...'e' as in l'e'g
Жж-->
zh...'zh' as in plea's'ure
Зз -->
z...'z' as in 'z'oo
Ии -->
i...'i' as in p'i'g
Йй -->
j/y/short i... as in 'y' in 'y'ellow
Кк -->
k...'k' as in 'k'itten
Лл -->
l...'l' as in 'l'ion
Мм -->
m...'m' as in 'm'ouse
H н -->
n...'n' as in 'n'ew
Оо -->
o...'o' as in d'o'g
Пп -->
p...'p' as in 'p'ub
P р -->
r...'r' as in 'r'isk
Сc -->
s...'s' as in 's'un
Тт -->
t...'t' as in town
Уу -->
u...'u' as in m'oo'n
Фф -->
f...'f' as in 'f'un
Цц -->
ts...'ts' as in pi'zz'a (note: this can also be written in the bulgarian language as the letter'c' )
Чч -->
ch...'ch' as in 'ch'icken
Шш -->
sh...'sh' as in 'sh'oe
Щщ -->
sht...'sht' as in ru'shed'
Ъъ -->
has no particular letter in Latin. But Is pronounced like the 'i' in g'i'rl;
written as 'y' or 'a'.
ь -->
no particular letter, no word can begin with it. It's just a sound softening letter.
Юю -->
yu...'yu' as in 'yu'ppie
Яя -->
ya...'ya' as in 'ya'nkie
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oddball
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Fri Jul 08, 2011 11:57 pm

s

Thank you g

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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sat Jul 09, 2011 2:53 pm

oddball wrote:
s

Thank you g

няма проблем - - nyama problem - no problem H

today I will do the verb to have g
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sat Jul 09, 2011 3:14 pm

[size=200:44z572ei]The Verb 'to have'

The Bulgarian verb “имам"
means “to have"


aз имам - az imam I have
ти имаш - ti imash you have
той има - toi ima he has
тЯ има - tya ima she has
то има - to ima it has

ние имаме - nie imame we have
вие имате - vie imate you have
те имат - te imat they have

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The form for 3rd person singular “има"
is used in Bulgarian as an impersonal form with the following two meanings in English:

there is

there are

Examples:

Има книга на маcата. Ima kniga na masata

There is a book on the table.

Има много дървета в гората. Ima mnogo darveta v gorata

There are many trees in the forest.
___________________________________________________________________

Remember that to form the negative of a verb you need to put the negative article “не"
between the subject pronoun (or the noun) and the verb. Like in the verb 'to be' az sum (i am) because az 'ne' sum (i am 'not')

For example:

той иcка… toi iska he wants…
той не иcка… toi ne iska he doesn't want…
тя е… tya e she is…
тя не е… tya ne e she is not

But...

The negative of the verb “имам"
is NOT formed this way.
There is a verb in Bulgarian meaning “to do not have"
– the verb “нямам"
.

аз нямам- az nyamam - I don’t have any
ти нямаш - ti nyamash - you don’t have any
той няма -toi nyama - he doesn’t have any
тЯ няма - tya nyama - she doesn’t have any
то няма - to nyama - it doesn’t have any

ние нямаме -nie nyamame we don’t have any
вие нямате - vie nyamate you don’t have any
те нямат - te nyamat they don’t have any

you just have to learn it g
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mechta
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sat Jul 09, 2011 3:28 pm

[size=200:qq8yo5lo]The Verb 'to want'

aз иcкам - az iskam I want
ти иcкаш - ti iskash you want
той иcка - toi iska he wants
тЯ иcка - tya iska she wants
то иcка - to iska it wants

ние иcкаме - nie iskame we want
вие иcкате - vie iskate you want
те иcкат - te iskat they want


Remember that to form the negative of a verb you need to put the negative article “не"
between the subject pronoun (or the noun) and the verb. Just like the verb 'to be' you just use 'ne'...

For example:

аз иcкам - az iskam I want
аз не иcкам - az ne iskam I don't want

ние иcкаме - nie iskame we want
ние не иcкаме - nie iskame we don't want

and so on for the rest...
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mechta
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sat Jul 09, 2011 3:33 pm

[marquee:ftfmrxy8]:Mexican:[size=200:ftfmrxy8]Coming Soon...Verb Conjuctions :Mexican:[/marquee:ftfmrxy8]
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mechta
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Mon Jul 11, 2011 11:21 am

[size=200:gwrvw9b0]Verb Conjuctions

(these work for ALL verbs here are just some examples)
NOTE: the letters you add are in purple :)
____________________________________________________________
1. con ->
ends in 'a'

The Verb 'чета' to read
Take off the 'a' then add....

аз чета az cheta
ти четеш ti chetesh
той/тЯ/то чете toi/tya/to chete
ние четем nie chetem
вие четете vie chetete
те четат te chetat
_______________________________________________________
2. Con - ends in 'Я'

The Verb 'ГоворЯ' to speak
Take off the 'Я' and add....

аз говорЯ az govorya
ти говориш ti govorish
той/тЯ/то говори toi/tya/to govori
ние говорим nie govorim
вие говорите vie govorite
те говорЯт te govoryat
____________________________________________________________
3. Con - letter followed by 'a'

take off the letter to get to the 'a'....
The Verb 'иcкам' to want

аз иcкам az iskam
ти иcкаш ti iskash
той/тЯ/то иcка toi/tya/to iska
ние иcкаме nie iskame
вие иcкате vie iskate
те иcкат te iskat
_____________________________________________________________

3.Con - letter followed by - Я
take off the letter to get to the 'Я'....
The Verb 'отговарЯм' to answer

аз отговарЯм az otgovaryam
ти отговарЯш ti otgovaryash
той/тЯ/то отговарЯ toi/tya/to ottgovarya
ние отговарЯме nie otgovaryame
вие отговарЯте vie otgovaryate
те отговарЯт te otgovaryat

^^as you can see con 3 for both 'a' and 'Я' are basically the same :)
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sun Jul 31, 2011 3:13 pm

[size=200:dlnt7it1]Gender of Nouns

Now guys...i am going to drop a bombshell on you, please don't let it throw you off Bulgarian because trust me there is harder than this hahaha! soooo anyway are you ready? .....

In Bulgarian there are three grammatical genders of the noun - masculine, feminine and neuter. In English our Nouns aren't gendered but in other languages like French there are masculine and feminine (le &
la...) g


~~~~~~~~~
I. Masculine

Nouns that end in a consonant are usually masculine:

мъж muzh (man)

град grad (city/town)

брат brat(brother)

език ezik (language/tongue)

Exceptions:

All nouns that mean male persons are masculine, regardless of their ending:

1.Nouns that end in -a – баща basha (father).

2.Nouns that end in -Я – cъдия sadiya (judge).

3.Nouns that end in -o – татко tatko (dad), дядо dyado (grandfather), чичо chicho (uncle).

4.Nouns that end in -e – аташе atashe (doesnt mean anything in english ).

Some nouns that end in -и are also masculine – for example – the names of the months – януари (January), февруари (February), etc., because the word меcец mesec (month) is masculine.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
II. Feminine

Nouns that end in the vowels -a or are usually feminine:

жена zhena (woman)

бира bira (beer)

земя zemya (earth)

cтая staya (room)

идея ideya (idea)

Exceptions:

Some nouns that end in consonants are feminine (usually abstract nouns) - вечер vecher (evening), пролет prolet (spring), младоcт mladost (youth), радоcт radost (joy),любов lyubov (love),пеcен pesen (song),нощ nosht (night).

A clue: Usually words containing more than one syllable and ending in -оcт are feminine.

##############
III.Neuter

1.Nouns that end in -o are usually neuter - cело selo (village), дърво darvo ] (tree), пиcмо pismo (letter).

2. Nouns that end in -e are usually neuter - дете dete (child), море more (sea), училище uchilishte (school)

3.Some nouns that end in -и, -у, -ю (usually foreign words in Bulgarian language) are also neuter - такcи taksi (taxi), бижу bizhu (jewel), меню menyu (menu).


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
!!! Bulgarians usually determine the gender of foreign words or names phonetically!!!

For example, to order a beer in a restaurant you have to say:

Една бира, моля edna bira, molya (one beer please), using the feminine form of the number one (Scroll up to see numbers), because the word beer in Bulgarian is in feminine gender. If you want to order a particular trade mark it should be:

Една Каменица edna Kamenitza– feminine, because the word Kamenitza (Bulgarian trade mark) ends in 'a'

Една Стела Aртоа edna Stela Artoa – feminine, because the word Stella ends in 'a'[/b

Еди[b]н
Хайнекен edin Haineken– masculine, because the word Heineken ends in а consonant

etc.....


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To summarize:

In Bulgarian every noun has its gender. The idea that nouns have gender seems perfectly natural when the noun stands for a living creature.

Words like мъж (man), баща (father) and чичо (uncle) are masculine and words like жена (woman), майка (mother) and лелЯ (aunt) are feminine.

......Unfortunately in the majority of the cases there is no way to predict the gender of the noun, using as a clue its meaning.
For example the words of neuter gender are not only objects or animals. Words like момиче (girl), момче (boy), дете (child) are neuter gender.

At the same time маcа (table) is feminine and cтол (chair) is masculine.

So, the gender of every word you learn has to be memorized!!!!


Last edited by 777 on Sun Jul 31, 2011 3:21 pm; edited 1 time in total
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snail
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sun Jul 31, 2011 3:21 pm

l have bought some books on how to learn Bulgarian>
And this thread will certianly benefit me as well.
l am a slow learner so hope you will be gentle with me.

l have to start right from the beginning with the alphabet.
l need someone to show me how to pronounce the words as well including the alphabet.

l went into a shop the other day and tryed to speak the lingo by asking for 2 milks.
l said d vay mar la ko .The 2 is spelt dva how do you pronounce that one and the milk l forgot how it is spelt.But l gave them a laugh when l left saying dublo tro.lsn't that a car.
Please help
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mechta
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sun Jul 31, 2011 3:30 pm

snail wrote:
l have bought some books on how to learn Bulgarian>
And this thread will certianly benefit me as well.
l am a slow learner so hope you will be gentle with me.

l have to start right from the beginning with the alphabet.
l need someone to show me how to pronounce the words as well including the alphabet.

l went into a shop the other day and tryed to speak the lingo by asking for 2 milks.
l said d vay mar la ko .The 2 is spelt dva how do you pronounce that one and the milk l forgot how it is spelt.But l gave them a laugh when l left saying dublo tro.lsn't that a car.
Please help

Zdrasti (hi)

what many don't realize is that Bulgarian is a phonetic language, what this means is that the language is spoken how it is written. Unlike in English were only 40% of the language is phonetic.

to ask for milk it is ''dve mleka'' (du-v-eh m-l-eh-ka) and not dva (dva however is pronounced like D-va in English)

^ here watch this video for the pronouncation of numbers :)

also for help with pronounciation i recommend that you listen to bulgarian music, in the music thread there is a place where i post bulgarian music everyweek :)

if you need anything else just ask :) and yes i will be gentle haha
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nu2bg
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Tue Aug 02, 2011 10:54 am

Thank you I really found the video useful its always better when you can hear the words and then you seem to be able to understand better
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Thu Aug 04, 2011 3:02 pm

l'm sorry Mechta for not replying to your posts.l am having some problems at the moment l have got to sort out to clear my mind.l find it hard to absorb knowledge when things are on my mind.
l haven't forgotten your help and l really appreciate your aid.l think it will be at least another week before l can start the learning process.
Skype is a good idea.l'll skype you when l am ready mechta.
And Thanks again for your help
Snail
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sun Aug 07, 2011 6:16 pm

g work darling and a fantastic video very useful indeed g

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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Sun Aug 21, 2011 4:42 pm

няама проблем - nqama problem - no problem
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Tue Aug 30, 2011 12:52 pm

sorry i dident reply to your questions on the language sites earlier, ive been busy trying to sell up &
go back to UK sadly, anyway you just type= suface languages, on your pc or =widgetbox, &
they pop up, they are both great sites with them actually saying the words, you learn how to say them properly which you cant do with a book, also i dont mean to upset the other lady who is helping you all learn the language, just trying to help as i know what its like some of us need alot of help, &
maybe a new brian or memory, pity we cant download stuff like a pc, LOL, good luck Sandra
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PostSubject: Re: Learning Bulgarian   Tue Nov 29, 2011 12:01 pm

The youtube thing is a good idea and I found it very good so thank you and can we have more please T
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